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ASTMD 445 Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque

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  • 发布时间:2016-03-01 09:36:46

[导读]:This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 445; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval

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ASTMD 445
Viscosity
Opaque
ASTMD 445 Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids
1. Scope
1.1 This test method specifies a procedure for the determination of the kinematic viscosity, n, of liquid petroleum products, both transparent and opaque, by measuring the time
for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. The dynamic viscosity, h,can be obtained by multiplying the kinematic viscosity, n, by the density, r, of the liquid.
NOTE 1—For the measurement of the kinematic viscosity and viscosity of bitumens, see also Test Methods D 2170 and D 2171.
1.2 The result obtained from this test method is dependent upon the behavior of the sample and is intended for applicationto liquids for which primarily the shear stress and shear rates are proportional (Newtonian flow behavior). If, however, the viscosity varies significantly with the rate of shear, different results may be obtained from viscometers of different capillary diameters. The procedure and precision values for residual fuel oils, which under some conditions exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, have been included.
1.3 The range of kinematic viscosities covered by this test method is from 0.2 to 300 000 mm2/s (see Table A1.1) at all temperatures (see 6.3 and 6.4). The precision has only been determined for those materials, kinematic viscosity ranges and temperatures as shown in the footnotes to the precision section.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
D 446 Specifications and Operating Instructions for Glass
Capillary Kinematic Viscometers2
D 1193 Specification for Reagent Water3
D 1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density
(Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer2
D 1480 Test Method for Density and Relative Density
(Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Bingham Pycnometer2
D 1481 Test Method for Density and Relative Density
(Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer2
D 2170 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Asphalts
(Bitumens)4
D 2171 Test Method for Viscosity of Asphalts by Vacuum
Capillary Viscometer4
D 6074 Guide for Characterizing Hydrocarbon Lubricant
Base Oils5
E 1 Specification for ASTM Thermometers6
E 77 Test Method for the Inspection and Verification of
Thermometers6
2.2 ISO Standards:7
ISO Guide 25—General Requirements for the Calibration and Testing Laboratories
ISO 3104 Petroleum Products—Transparent and Opaque Liquids—Determination of Kinematic Viscosity and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity
ISO 3105 Glass Capillary Kinematic Viscometers—Specification and Operating Instructions
ISO 3696 Water for Analytical Laboratory Use—Specification and Test Methods
ISO 9000 Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards—Guidelines for Selection and Use
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
3.1.1 automated viscometer, n—apparatus which, in part or
in whole, has mechanized one or more of the procedural steps
indicated in 10 or 11 without changing the principle or
technique of the basic manual apparatus. The essential elements of the apparatus in respect to dimensions, design and
operational characteristics are not changed. The measured
result from the apparatus does not require correction to bring it
into correlation with the basic manual apparatus. The precision
of the apparatus shall be of statistical equivalence to, or better
(has less variability) than the manual apparatus.
3.1.1.1 Discussion—Automated viscometers have the capability to mimic some operation of the test method while reducing or removing the need for manual intervention or interpretation. Apparatus which determine kinematic viscosity by physical techniques that are different than those used in this test method are not considered to be Automated Viscometers.
3.1.2 density, n—the mass per unit volume of a substance at a given temperature.
3.1.3 dynamic viscosity, n—the ratio between the applied shear stress and rate of shear of a liquid.
3.1.3.1 Discussion—It is sometimes called the coefficient of dynamic viscosity or, simply, viscosity. Thus dynamic viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow or deformation of a liquid.
3.1.3.2 Discussion—The term dynamic viscosity can also be used in a different context to denote a frequency-dependent quantity in which shear stress and shear rate have a sinusodial time dependence.
3.1.4 kinematic viscosity, n—the resistance to flow of a fluid under gravity.
3.1.4.1 Discussion—For gravity flow under a given hydrostatic head, the pressure head of a liquid is proportional to its density, r. For any particular viscometer, the time of flow of a fixed volume of fluid is directly proportional to its kinematic
viscosity, n, where n = h/r, and h is the dynamic viscosity coefficient.
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